Varna Bay is situated in the northern part of the Black Sea Coast between cape Galata and cape St. George. Its maximum width is 3.5 nm. Varna Bay is the second largest after the Bay of Burgas in the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast. The beach line is covered with sand and the central part is covered with silty sediments. The bay has a flat bottom inclined eastwards. Its maximum depth is 18.5m. At the west part it is artificially connected to Varna Lake, thus having a great effect on the biodiversity in the two basins.
The city of Varna is located on the north and west coasts of Varna Bay and the northeast coast of Varna Lake. South of the channel connecting the bay and the lake are located the Asparuhovo and Galata districts. On the north coast are located the main industrial zone and the port complex. Northeast of them are located the central part of the city with the historical center (the so-called "Greek Quarter") and the central beach.
The climate of Varna is maritime , relatively mild in the warm part of the year. The average January temperature is 1.7 ° С, the average July temperature is 22.8 ° С, the average annual temperature is 12.2 ° С, the absolute minimum temperature is –24.3 ° С (measured on 10th Feb 1929), the absolute maximum temperature is 41.4 ° С in July. The average annual rainfall is 498 mm, the maximum is in June and November and minimum in February. On 21st August 1951 in Sanatoriuma area is observed the heaviest twenty-four-hour rainfall ïn Bulgaria – 342mm.
The longest sunshine in Varna is in July and August – 331 hours and 313 hours respectively. In the vicinities of the city the climate is suitable for cultivation of Mediterranian crops like pomegranate, paradise apple, kiwi, fig, laurel-leaves. The city of Varna is appropriate for balneotherapy as the climate is like a natural inhaler.
On the north of Varna is The Frangen Plateau (the maximum height 356m) which prevents in some extent from the strong north and northeast winds in the winter. Usually from May to October the temperatures are between 18 °C ÷ 31°C, and the average temperature in July and August is 22.8 °C. In the summer the sea water temperature is about 20°C, as in the hottest days the sand can be heated to 60°C.
The average height of the waves in Varna Bay is about 61cm.
Varna Lake is in Northeast part of Bulgaria, close to the city of Varna. It is connected with Varna Bay and Beloslav Lake artificially by channels. It is fed up through the Beloslav Lake mainly by Devnia springs.
After excavation works for a navigational channel the level decreases about 1.5m, and the water salinity increases to 8%. The marshy areas on the lake coasts are drained. In 1976 a new deeper and wider channel is done (excavated), resulting in increase in the water salinity to 15% on the surface and 17% at the bottom layers. In the deepest bottom areas there is a hydrogen sulfide silt used for mud treatment.
Length: 15 km, Width: 1.3 – 3.8 km., Area 19 sq.km, Maximum depth: 19m, Capacity: 166 million m3.
Rivers Provadiiska, Devnia, Ignatievska and Konstantinovska as well as Peinerdjikski ravine flow in Varna Lake. In the past there were a lot of fish. Varna Lake has a great importance for transport – it is used for a navigation channel to Port Varna West.
When navigating to Port Varna West more specific regulations should be observed. Port Varna West is located on the west coast of Varna water basin consisting of Varna Lake, Beloslav Lake and connecting Channels.
Vessels cross these Channels /No1 and No2/ only in one-way direction with speed limit. Vessels are passing each other in the fairway of the Varna Lake, where are situated the ship anchorage areas. The vessels height is also limited because over the Channel 1 is crossing Asparuhov Bridge. All channels dues are collected by Bulgarian Ports Infrastructure Company (BPIC).
Length of the fairway (to Varna West): 14 nmi
Transit time: 1.5 hours
Maximum speed – 6 knots
Maximum airdraft – 41.5m
Length: 2 nmi
Vessels Maximum draught: 11.5 m
Length: 5 nmi
Vessels Maximum draught: 10.5 m
Passenger Terminal Varna is located at Varna East Port Terminal. It is located at 1st Valnolomna Str. in close proximity to the entrance of the old part of Port of Varna East. At the east side the port is protected by a breakwater and the Passenger Terminal Varna is situated within. The construction of Passanger Terminal Varna was completed in 1968. It is a three-storey building with a reastaurant, duty free shops and offices there. On the third floor there is an observation deck with a view to the Port Complex.
Varna East Terminal (including Passenger Terminal) operates cargo vessels, cruise and passenger ships. In 2006 over 31 650 passengers of internal and seagoing voyages were serviced, as well as 23 big cruise ships with 9200 passengers.
Varna East Port Terminal has two berths for cruise ships and a small yacht marina, managed by “Port Varna” Yacht Club. The yacht marina provides services to small vessels and a lot of local regattas are hosted and organized there.